(a) Treatment as expenses

 

                (1) In general.  A taxpayer may treat research or experimental expenditures which are paid or incurred by him during the taxable year in connection with his trade or business as expenses which are not chargeable to capital account. The expenditures so treated shall be allowed as a deduction.

 

                (2) When method may be adopted

 

                                (A) Without consent.  A taxpayer may, without the consent of the Secretary, adopt the method provided in this subsection for his first taxable year—

 

                                                (i) which begins after December 31, 1953, and ends after August 16, 1954, and

 

                                                (ii) for which expenditures described in paragraph (1) are paid or incurred.

 

                                (B) With consent.  A taxpayer may, with the consent of the Secretary, adopt at any time the method provided in this subsection.

 

                (3) Scope.  The method adopted under this subsection shall apply to all expenditures described in paragraph (1). The method adopted shall be adhered to in computing taxable income for the taxable year and for all subsequent taxable years unless, with the approval of the Secretary, a change to a different method is authorized with respect to part or all of such expenditures.

 

(b) Amortization of certain research and experimental expenditures

 

                (1) In general.  At the election of the taxpayer, made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, research or experimental expenditures which are—

 

                                (A) paid or incurred by the taxpayer in connection with his trade or business,

 

                                (B) not treated as expenses under subsection (a), and

 

                                (C) chargeable to capital account but not chargeable to property of a character which is subject to the allowance under section 167 (relating to allowance for depreciation, etc.) or section 611 (relating to allowance for depletion),

 

may be treated as deferred expenses. In computing taxable income, such deferred expenses shall be allowed as a deduction ratably over such period of not less than 60 months as may be selected by the taxpayer (beginning with the month in which the taxpayer first realizes benefits from such expenditures). Such deferred expenses are expenditures properly chargeable to capital account for purposes of section 1016 (a)(1) (relating to adjustments to basis of property).

 

                (2) Time for and scope of election.  The election provided by paragraph (1) may be made for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1953, but only if made not later than the time prescribed by law for filing the return for such taxable year (including extensions thereof). The method so elected, and the period selected by the taxpayer, shall be adhered to in computing taxable income for the taxable year for which the election is made and for all subsequent taxable years unless, with the approval of the Secretary, a change to a different method (or to a different period) is authorized with respect to part or all of such expenditures. The election shall not apply to any expenditure paid or incurred during any taxable year before the taxable year for which the taxpayer makes the election.

 

(c) Land and other property .  This section shall not apply to any expenditure for the acquisition or improvement of land, or for the acquisition or improvement of property to be used in connection with the research or experimentation and of a character which is subject to the allowance under section 167 (relating to allowance for depreciation, etc.) or section 611 (relating to allowance for depletion); but for purposes of this section allowances under section 167, and allowances under section 611, shall be considered as expenditures.

 

(d) Exploration expenditures.  This section shall not apply to any expenditure paid or incurred for the purpose of ascertaining the existence, location, extent, or quality of any deposit of ore or other mineral (including oil and gas).

 

(e) Only reasonable research expenditures eligible.  This section shall apply to a research or experimental expenditure only to the extent that the amount thereof is reasonable under the circumstances.

 

(f) Cross references

 

                (1) For adjustments to basis of property for amounts allowed as deductions as deferred expenses under subsection (b), see section 1016 (a)(14).

 

                (2) For election of 10-year amortization of expenditures allowable as a deduction under subsection (a), see section 59 (e).

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